GENESIS Technical Overview

 

 

 

 

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

 

PROPERTY OF SEGA

 

 

 

 

 

Look forward to more Tech notes:

 

Super Nintendo

Jaguar

 

 

 

 

 

Edited by Nemesis – corrupted images repaired

 

 

 

 


GENESIS:

 

  68000 @8 MHz

    • main CPU

    • 1 MByte (8 Mbit) ROM Area

    • 64 KByte RAM Area

 

  VDP (Video Display Processor)

    • dedicated video display processor

      - controls playfield & sprites

      - capable of DMA

      - Horizontal & Vertical interrupts

    • 64 KBytes of dedicated VRAM (Video Ram)

    • 64 x 9-bits of CRAM (Color RAM)

 

  Z80 @4 MHz

    • controls PSG (Programmable Sound Generator) & FM Chips

    • 8 KBytes of dedicated Sound Ram

 

VIDEO:

 

  • NOTE: Playfield and Sprites are character-based

 

  • Display Area (visual)

 

    - 40 chars wide x 28 chars high

      • each char is 8 x 8 pixels

      • pixel resolution = 320 x 224

 

    - 3 Planes

      • 2 scrolling playfields

      • 1 sprite plane

      • definable priorities between planes

 

    - Playfields:

      • 6 different sizes

      • 1 playfield can have a "fixed" window

      • playfield map

        - each char position takes 2 Bytes, that includes:

          • char name (10 bits); points to char definition

          • horizontal flip

          • vertical flip

          • color palette (2 bits); index into CRAM

          • priority


      • scrolling:

        - 1 pixel scrolling resolution

        - horizontal:

          • whole playfield as unit

          • each character line

          • each scan line

        - vertical:

          • whole playfield as unit

          • 2 char wide columns

 

    - Sprites:

      • 1 x 1 char up to 4 x 4 chars

      • up to 80 sprites can be defined

      • up to 20 sprites displayed on a scan line

      • sprite priorities

 

    - Character Definitions

      • 4 bits/pixel; points to color register

      • 4 bytes/scanline of char

      • 32 bytes for complete char definition

      • playfield & sprite chars are the same!

 

 

COLOR:

 

  - Uses CRAM (part of the VDP)

    • 64 9-bit wide color registers

      - 64 colors out of 512 possible colors

        • 3 bits of Red

        • 3 bits of Green

        • 3 bits of Blue

        • 4 palettes of 16 colors

          - 0th color (of each palette) is always transparent

 

 

OTHER:

 

  - DMA

    • removes the 68000 from the BUS

    • can move 205 Bytes/scanline during VBLANK

      - there are 36 scanlines during VBLANK

      - DMA can move 7380 Bytes during VBLANK

 

  - Horizontal & Vertical interrupts


SOUND:

 

  - Z80 controls:

    • PSG (TI 76489 chip)

    • FM chip (Yamaha YM 2612)

      - 6-channel stereo

    • Z80 can access ROM data

    • 8 KBytes RAM

 

 

HARDWARE:

 

  - 2 controllers

    • joypad

    • 3 buttons

    • Start button

  - 1 external port

  - 2 video-outs (RF & RGB)

  - audio jack (stereo)

  - volume control (for audio jack)


*******  INDEX *******

 

  1.  MEMORY MAP                                                          1

 

 

       § 1 MEGA DRIVE 16BIT MODE                                          1

 

         _ 68000 MEMORY MAP                                               1

         _ Z80 MEMORY MAP                                                 2

         _ 68000 ACCESS TO Z80 MEMORY                                     2

         _ I/O AREA                                                       3

         _ CONTROL AREA                                                   3

         _ VDP AREA                                                       4

 

  2. VDP 315-5313                                                         5

     (Video Display Processor)

 

         _ TERMINOLOGY                                                    6

 

       § 1 DISPLAY SPECIFICATION                                          7

 

       § 2 VDP STRUCTURE                                                  9

         _ CTRL                                                           9

         _ VRAM                                                           9

         _ CRAM                                                           9

         _ VSRAM                                                          9

         _ DMA                                                            9

 

       § 3 INTERRUPTS                                                    10

         _ VERTICAL INTERRUPT                                            10

         _ HORIZONTAL INTERRUPT                                          10

         _ EXTERNAL INTERRUPT                                            11

 

       § 4 VDP INTERFACE                                                 12

         _ $C00000 (DATA CHANNEL)                                        13

         _ $C00004 (CONTROL CHANNEL)                                     13

         _ $C00008 (HV COUNTER)                                          15

 

       § 5 VDP REGISTER                                                  15

         Reg. # 0 - Reg. # 3                                             16

         Reg. # 4 - Reg. #10                                             17

         Reg. #11 - Reg. #14                                             18

         Reg. #15 - Reg. #18                                             19

         Reg. #19 - Reg. #23                                             20

 

       § 6 ACCESS VDP RAM                                                21

         _ ADDRESS SETTING                                               21

         _ VRAM ACCESS                                                   22

         _ CRAM ACCESS                                                   26

         _ VSRAM ACCESS                                                  27

         _ ACCESS TIMING                                                 28

         _ HV COUNTER                                                    29


*******  INDEX *******

       § 7 DMA                                                           30

         _ MEMORY TO VRAM                                                30

         _ VRAM FILL                                                     32

         _ VRAM COPY                                                     36

         _ DMA ABILITY                                                   38

 

       § 8 SCROLL                                                        39

         _ SCREEN SIZE                                                   40

         _ HORIZONTAL SCROLL                                             41

         _ YERTICAL SCROLL                                               43

         _ SCROLL PATTERN                                                45

         _ PATTERN NAME                                                  46

 

       § 9 WINDOW                                                        48

         _ POSITION                                                      49

         _ PRIORITY                                                      52

         _ PATTERN NAME                                                  52

 

       § 10 SPRIT_E                                                      54

         _ POSITION                                                      54

         _ ATTRIBUTE                                                     56

         _ SIZE                                                          57

         _ ABILITY                                                       57

         _ PRIORITY (SPRITES)                                            58

         _ PATTERN GENERATER                                             60

 

       § 11 PRIORITY                                                     61

 

       § 12 COLOR PALETTE                                                67

 

       § 13 INTERLACE MODE                                               69

 

  3. 8/16 BIT COMPATIBILITY                                              71

 

         _ MARK III (MS - JAPAN)                                         71

         _ MS                                                            71

         _ RAM CARD                                                      71

 

  4. I/O                                                                 72

 

       § 1 VERSION NO.                                                   72

 

       § 2 I/O                                                           72

 

       § 3 MEMORY MODE                                                   76

 

       § 4 Z80 CONTROLS                                                  76

         _ Z80 BUSREQ                                            76

         _ Z80 RESET                                             76

 

       § 5 Z80 AREA                                              77

         _ SOUND RAM                                             77

         _ SOUND CHIP                                            77

         _ BANK REGISTER                                         77

 

  5. VRAM MAPPING                                                79

  6. APPEND                                                       XX


    1. MEMORY MAP

 

    § 1 MEGA DRIVE 16 BIT MODE (AS DISTINCT FROM

         MASTER SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY MODE)

 

    _ 68K MEMORY MAP _

 


    _ Z80 MEMORY MAP _

 

 

 

 

 

     _ 68000 ACCESS TO Z80 MEMORY _

 

 

 


_ I/O AREA _

 

 

 

_ CONTROL AREA _

 


_ VDP AREA _

 

 


  2.  VDP 315 - 5313

      (Video Display Processor)

The VDP controls screen display.  VDP has graphic modes IV and V.  Where Mode IV is for compatibility with the MASTER SYSTEM and V is for the new Mega drive functions.  There are no advantages to using mode IV.  so it is assumed that all Mega drive development will use mode V.  In Mode V. the VDP display has 4 planes:  SPRITE, SCROLL A/WINDOW, SCROLL B, and BACKGROUND.

 

       GRAPHIC IV MODE (COMPATIBILITY MODE)

 

 

       GRAPHIC V MODE (16 BIT MODE)

 

 


_ TERMINOLOGY  _

 

 1.  A unit of Position on X Y coordinates is called a "DOT".

 2.  A minimum unit of display is called a "PIXEL".

 3.  "CELL" means an 8 (pixel) x 8 (pixel) pattern.

 4.  SCROLL indicated a repositionable screen-spanning play field.

 5.  CPU usually indicates the 68000.

 6.  VDP stands for Video Display Processor.

 7.  CTRL stands for Control.

 8.  VRAM stands for VDP RAM,  the 64K bytes area of RAM accessible only

       through the VDP.

 9.  CRAM stands for Color RAM, 64 9 bit  words inside the VDP chip.

10.  VSRAM stands for vertical Scroll RAM.  40 1Obit words inside the

       VDP chip.

11.  DMA stands for Direct Memory Access,  the process by  which the

       VDP performs high speed fills or memory copies.

12.  PSG stands for Programmable sound Generator.  A class of

       low-capability Sound chips.  The Mega drive contains a

       Texas Instruments 76489 PSG chip.

13.  FM stands for Frequency Modulation,  a class of high-capability

       sound chip.  The Mega drive contains a Yamaha 2612 FM chip.


       § 1 DISPLAY SPECIFICATION

 

               DISPLAY SPECIFICATION OUTLINE

 

DISPLAY

     SIZE

THERE  ARE   TWO  MODES:

32*28 CELL (256*224 PIXEL)

40*28 CELL (320*224 PIXEL)

CHARACTER GENERATOR

8*8 CELLS 1300-1800 depending on general

system configuration.

SCROLL

PLAYFIELDS

Two scrolling play fields. whose size in cells is selectable from;

32*32,    32*64,    32*128,

64*32,    64*64,    128*32

SPRITE

Sprite size is programmable on a sprite by sprite basis. with the following choices.

 8*8,    8*16,    8*24,    8*32

16*8,   16*16,   16*24,   16*32

24*8,   24*16,   24*24,   24*32

32*8,   32*16,   32*24,   32*32

There are 64 sprites available when the screen is in 32 cell wide mode.  Or 80 when the screen is in 40 cell wide mode.

WINDOW

1 window associated with the Scroll A play field.

COLORS

64 colors/512 possibilities

 

For PAL (the European Television 50HZ standard),  a vertical size of

30 cells (240 dots) is selectable.


The VDP supports both NTSC and PAL television standards.  In both cases,

the screen is divided into active scan, where the picture is displayed,

and vertical retrace (or vertical blanking) where the monitor prepares

for the next display.

 

           Numbers of rasters in a screen are as follows:

 

 

Lines/Screen

VCELL

LINE NO.

(DISPLAY)

LINE NO.

(RETRACE)

NTSC

262

28

224 RASTER

38 RASTER

PAL

312

28

224 RASTER

98 RASTER

PAL

312

30

240 RASTER

82 RASTER

 


      §2  VDP STRUCTURE

 

    The CPU controls the VDP by special I/0 memory locations.

 

    _ CTRL (Control) _

    This controls REGISTER, VRAM, CRAM, VSRAM, DMA DISPLAY, etc.

 

    _ VRAM (VDP RAM) _

    General purpose storage area for display data.

 

    _ CRAM (COLOR RAM) _

    64 colors divided into 4 palettes of 16 colors each.

 

    _ VSRAM (Vertical scroll RAM) _

    Up to 20 different vertical scroll values each for scrolling

    play fields A and B.

 

    _ DMA (Direct Memory Access) _

    The VDP may move data at high speed from CPU memory to VRAM, CRAM,

    and VSRAM instead of the CPU, by taking the 68000 off the bus and

    doing DMA itself.

 

    The VDP can also fill the VRAM with a constant, or copy from VRAM

    to VRAM without disturbing the 68000.

 


      § 3  INTERRUPT

 

There are three interrupts:  Vertical, Horizontal, and External.

You can control each interrupt by the lEO, IE1, and IE2 bits in

the VDP registers.  The interrupts use the AUTO-VECTOR mode of the

68000 and are at levels 6, 4, and 2 respectively. The level 6 vertical

interrupt having the highest priority.

 

      lEO  V    Interrupt                 (LEVEL6)

      IE1  H    Interrupt                 (LEVEL4)

      IE2  External Interrupt             (LEVEL2)

            1 : Enable

            0 : Disable

 

    _ VERTICAL INTERRUPT (V-INT) _

    The vertical interrupt occurs just after V retrace.

 

    _ HORIZONTAL INTERRUPT (H-INT) _

    The horizontal interrupt occurs just before H retrace.

 

The VDP loads the required display information, including all required

register values, for the line in about 36 clocks, thus the CPU can

control the display of the next line but not the line on which the

interrupt occurs.

The horizontal interrupt is controlled by a line counter in register #10. If this line counter is changed at each interrupt, the desired spacing of interrupts may be achieved.

 

Thus:  If Register #10 equals 00h then the interrupt occurs every line.

  If Register #10 equals O1h then the interrupt occurs every other line.

  If Register #10 equals 02h then the interrupt occurs every third line.


_ EXTERNAL INTERRUPT (EX-INT) _

 

The external interrupt is generated by a peripheral device (gun, modem) and stops the counter for later examination by the CPU.

 

 

 

 

Please see other sections of this manual for information about the H, V counter and the initialization of the external interrupt.

 


      § 4  VDP PORT

 

The VDP ports are at location 68000 in the 68000 memory space.

 

 


_  $ C00000 (DATA PORT) _

 

  READ/WRITE: VRAM, VSRAM, CRAM

 

 

_ $ C00004 (CONTROL PORT) _

 

  READ     : STATUS REGISTER

          *  NO USE

 

          EMPT     1: WRITE FIFO EMPTY

                   0:

          FULL     1: WRITE FIFO FULL

                   0:

          F        1: V interrupt happened.

          SOVR     1: Sprites overflow occurred, too many in one line.

                          Over 17 in 32 cell mode.

                          Over 21 in 40 cell mode.

          C        1: Collision happened between non-zero pixels

                        in two sprites.

                   0:

          ODD      1: Odd frame in interlace mode.

                   0: Even frame in interlace mode.

          VB       1: During V blanking

                   0:

          HB       1: During H blanking

                   0:

          DMA      1: DMA BUSY

                   0:

          PAL      1: PAL MODE

                   0: NTSC MODE

 


     WRITE1   : REGISTER SET

 

 

             RS4 ~ RS0  : Register No.

             D7  ~ D0   : Date

 

* You must use word or long word access to VDP ports when setting the registers.  Long word access is equivalent to two word accesses, with

D31-D16 written first.

 

 

 

     WRITE2   : ADDRESS SET

 

                 CD5 ~ CD0  :  ID CODE

                 A15 ~ A0   :  DESTINATION RAM ADDRESS

 

ACCESS MODE

CD5

CD4

CD3

CD2

CD1

CD0

VRAM WRITE

0

0

0

0

0

1

CRAM WRITE

0

0

0

0

1

1

VSRAM WRITE

0

0

0

1

0

1

VRAM READ

0

0

0

0

0

0

CRAM READ

0

0

1

0

0

0

VSRAM READ

0

0

0

1

0

0

 

 

* You must use word or long word when performing these operations.

 


_ $ C00008 (HV Counter) _

 

NON INTERLACE MODE

 

 

 

 

INTERLACE MODE

 

 

                  HC8 ~ HC1  :  H COUNTER

                  VC8 ~ VC0  :  V COUNTER


      § 4  VDP REGISTER

 

VDP has write only register #0 through #23 and read only status register total 25 register.  These are two modes for register settings.  One is mode 4 and another is mode 5.  We tell you about mode 5 in this section and about mode 4 see MARK section.  If you change mode in one frame you can get various effects.

 

MODE SET REGISTER No. 1

 

 

               IE1     1:  Enable H interrupt (68000 Level 4)

                       0:  Disable H interrupt (REG #10)

               M3      1:  HV. Counter stop

                       0:  Enable read HV. counter

 

MODE SET REGISTER No. 2

 

          DISP    1:  Enable Display

                  0:  Disable Display

          IE0     1:  Enable V interrupt (68000 Level 6)

                  0:  Disable V interrupt

          M1      1:  DMA Enable

                  0:  DMA Disable

          M2      1:  V 30 cell mode (PAL mode)

                  0:  V 28 cell mode (Pal mode, always 0 in NTSC mode)

 

PATTERN NAME TABLE BASE ADDRESS FOR SCROLL A

 

            VRAM  ADDR $XXX0_0000_0000_0000

 

PATTERN NAME TABLE BASE ADDRESS FOR WINDOW

 

            WD11 should be 0 in H40 cell mode

            VRAM ADDR $ XXXX_X000_0000_0000 (H 32 cell mode)

            VRAM ADDR $ XXXX_0000_0000_0000 (H 40 cell mode)


PATTERN NAME TABLE BASE ADDRESS FOR SCROLL B

 

             VRAM ADDR $XXX0_0000_0000_0000

 

 

SPRITE ATTRIBUTE TABLE BASE ADDRESS

 

            AT9 should be 0 in H 40 cell mode

            VRAM ADDR $XXXX_XXX0_0000_0000 ( 32 cell )

            VRAM ADDR $XXXX_XX00_0000_0000 ( 40 cell )

 

 

BACKGROUND COLOR

 

            CPT1,0   : COLOR PALLET

            COL3 ~ 0 : COLOR CODE

 

H INTERRUPT REGISTER

 

 

            This register makes H interrupt timing by number of Raster

            H interrupt is enabled by IE=1


MODE SET REGISTER No. 3

 

            IE2     1:  Enable external interrupt (68000 Level 2)

                    0:  Disable external interrupt

               *  See INTERRUPT and SYSTEM I/O

    VSCR:  V scroll mode                  HSCR, LSCR: H scroll mode

VSCR

FUNCTION

 

HSCR

LSCR

FUNCTION

0

FULL SCROLL

 

0

0

FULL SCROLL

1

EACH 2 CELL SCROLL

 

0

1

PROHIBITED

 

 

 

1

0

EACH 1 CELL SCROLL

 

 

 

1

1

EACH 1 LINE SCROLL

 

                      * BOTH SCROLL A AND B

 

MODE SET REGISTER No. 4

 

             RS0    0: Horizontal 32 cell mode

                    1: Horizontal 40 cell mode

             RS1    0: Horizontal 32 cell mode

                    1: Horizontal 40 cell mode

              *  You should set same No. in RS0, RS1.

                   32 cell  0000_XXX0

                   40 cell  1000_XXX1

            S/TE    1: Enable SHADOW and HIGHLIGHT.

                    0: Disable SHADOW and HIGHLIGHT.

            LSM1, LSM0: Interlace mode setting

 

LSM1

LSM0

FUNCTION

0

0

NO INTERLACE

0

1

INTERLACE

1

0

PROHIBITED

1

1

INTERLACE (Double Resolution)

 

H SCROLL DATA TABLE BASE ADDRESS

 

            VRAM ADDR  $XXXX_XX00_0000_0000

 


AUTO INCREMENT DATA

This register controls bias number of increment data.

 

            INC7 ~ 0: Bias number ( 0 ~ $FF )

            This number is added automatically after ram access.

 

SCROLL SIZE

 

 

VSZ1

VSZ0

FUNCTION

 

HSZ1

HSZ0

FUNCTION

0

0

V 32 cell

 

0

0

H 32 cell

0

1

V 64 cell

 

0

1

H 64 cell

1

0

PROHIBITED

 

1

0

PROHIBITED

1

1

V 128 cell

 

1

1

H 128 cell

                                    * Both of scroll A and B

 

WINDOW H POSITION

 

            RIGT    0: Window is in left side from base point.

                    1: Window is in right side from base point.

            WHP5 ~ 1   Base pointer  0=Left Side

                                     1=1 cell right

                                     2...

 

WINDOW V POSITION

             DOWN   0 : Window is in upper side from base point.

                    1 : Window is in lower side from base point.

             WVP4 ~ 0   Base pointer  0=Upper side

                                      1= 1 cell down

                                      2...


DMA LENGTH COUNTER LOW

 

 

DMA LENGTH COUNTER HIGH

 

            LG15 ~ 0:  DMA LENGTH COUNTER

 

DMA SOURCE ADDRESS LOW

 

 

DMA SOURCE ADDRESS MID

 

 

DMA SOURCE ADDRESS HIGH

 

             SA22 ~ 1 :  DMA Source address

             DMD1, 0  :  DMA MODE

 

DMD1

DMD0

FUNCTION

0

SA23

MEMORY TO VRAM

1

0

VRAM FILL

1

1

VRAM COPY


    §  6  ACCESS VDP RAM

 

_ RAM ADDRESS SETTING _

 

You can access VRAM CRAM and VSRAM after writing 32 bits of control data to $C00004 or $C00006.

 

You have to use word or long word when addressing.  If you use long word D31 - D16 is 1st, D15 - D0 2nd.

 

 

                 CD5 ~ CD0  :  ID CODE

                 A15 ~ A0   :  DESTINATION RAM ADDRESS

 

 

 

CD5

CD4

CD3

CD2

CD1

CD0

VRAM WRITE

0

0

0

0

0

1

CRAM WRITE

0

0

0

0

1

1

VSRAM WRITE

0

0

0

1

0

1

VRAM READ

0

0

0

0

0

0

CRAM READ

0

0

1

0

0

0

VSRAM READ

0

0

0

1

0

0

 


_ VRAM ACCESS _

 

VRAM address range from 0 to 0FFFF H, 64K bytes total.  VRAM access addressing is as follow when writing:

 

                      A15 ~ A0   : VRAM address

 

                     D15 ~ D0 :   VRAM data

 

When you use long word D31 ~ D16 is 1st.  D15 ~ D0 2nd.  When you do

byte writing, data is D7 ~ D0, and may be written to $C00000 or $C00001.

VRAM address is increased by the value of REGISTER # 15. independent data size.  VRAM address A0 is used in the calculation of the address increment, but is ignored during address decoding.

 

VRAM addressing and decoding are as follows:

the CRAM address decode uses A15 ~ A1, and A0 specifies the data write format.  Write data can not cross a word boundary high and low bytes are exchanged if A0=1.

 

 


(EXAMPLE)

START ADDRESS: 0    REG. #15=2

 

 

START ADDRESS: 0  REG. #15=1

 

 


 

START ADDRESS: 1    REG. #15=2

 

 

START ADDRESS: 1  REG. #15=1

 


VRAM READ

 

 

                      A15 ~ A0   : VRAM address

 

                     D15 ~ D0 :   VRAM data

 

 

The data is always read in word units.  A0 is ignored during the read; no swap of bytes occurs if A0=1.

Subsequent reads are from address incremented by REGISTER #15.  A0 is used in calculation of the next address.

 

 


_ CRAM ACCESS _

 

The CRAM contains 128 bytes, addresses 0 to 7FH.  For word wide writes to the CRAM, use:

 

 

                        A6 ~ A0   : VRAM address

 

 

D15 ~ D0 are valid when we use word for data set.  If the writes are byte wide, write the high byte to $C00000 and the low byte to $C00001.  A long word wide access is equivalent to two sequential word wide accesses.  Place the first data in D31 - D16 and the second data in D15 - D0.  The date may be written sequentially;  the address is incremented by the value of REGISTER #15 after every write, independent of whether the width is byte of word.

 

Note that A0 is used in the increment but not in address decoding, resulting in some interesting side-effects if writes are attempted at odd addresses.

 

For word wide reads from the CRAM, use:

 

 

                        A6 ~ A0   : VRAM address

 


_ VSRAM ACCESS _

 

The VSRAM contains 80 bytes, addresses 0 to 4FH.  For word wide writes to the VSRAM, use:

 

 

                        A6 ~ A0   : VSRAM address

 

                  VS10 - VS0 :  V quantity of scroll

 

If you use word for data and valid in D15 ~ D0.  D15 - D0 are valid when we use word for data set.  If the writes are byte wide, write the high byte to $C00000 and the low byte to $C00001.  A long word wide access is equivalent to two sequential word wide accesses.  Place the first data in D31 - D16 and the second data in D15 - D0.  The date may be written sequentially;  the address is incremented by the value of REGISTER #15 after every write, independent of whether the width is byte of word.

 

Note that A0 is used in the increment but not in address decoding, resulting in some interesting side-effects if writes are attempted at odd addresses.

 

For word wide reads from the VSRAM, use:

 

 

                        A6 ~ A0   : VSRAM address

 

                  VS10 ~ VS0 :  V quantity of scroll

 


_ ACCESS TIMING _

 

The CPU and CDP access CRAM, CRAM, and VSRAM using timesharing.  Because the VDP is very busy during the active scan, the CPU accesses are limited.  However, during vertical blanking the CPU may access the CDP continuously.

 

The number of permitted accesses by the CPU additionally depends on whether the screen is in 32 cell mode or 40 cell mode.  Additionally the access size depends on the RAM type;  a VRAM access is byte wide,  but CRAM and CSRAM are word wide.

 

 

 

 

For example, in 32 cell mode, the CPU may access the VRAM 16 times during horizontal scan in a single line.  Each access is a byte write, so this amounts to 2 words.  However CRAM and CSRAM though sharing the 16 time limit, are word accesses so that 16 words may be written in a single line.

 

Although these is a four-word FIFO.  if writes are done in a tight loop during active scan the FIFO will fill up and the CPU will eventually end up waiting to write.

 

The maximum wait times are:

 

DISPLAY MODE

MAXIMUM WAITING TIME

H 32 cell

Approximate 5.96 µsec

H 40 cell

Approximate 4.77 µsec

 

As the CPU has unlimited access to the RAMs during vertical blanking, the wait case never arises.


 

_ HV COUNTER _

 

The HV counter's function is to give the horizontal and vertical location of the television beam.  If the "M3" bit of REGISTER #0 is set, the HV counter will then freeze when trigger signal HL goes high, as well as triggering a level 2 interrupt.

 

M3

COUNTER LATCH MODE

0

COUNTER IS NOT LATCHED BY TRIGGER SIGNAL

1

COUNTER IS LATCHED BY TRIGGER SIGNAL

                     M3:  REGISTER # 0

 

NON INTERLACE MODE

 

 

INTERLACE MODE

 

 

  V-COUNTER :  VC7 ~ VC0                H-COUNTER : HC8 ~ HC1

DISPLAY MODE

COUNTER DATA

 

DISPLAY MODE

COUNTER DATA

V 28 CELL

0 ~ DFH

 

H 32 CELL

0 ~ 7FH

V 30 CELL

0 ~ EFH

 

H 40 CELL

0 ~ 9FH

 

The counter only has eight bits each for H and V, so interlace mode and 40 cell (320 dots) modes present some problems.  During interlace mode, the LSB of the vertical position is replaced by the new MSB.  And the horizontal resolution problem is solved by ALWAYS dropping the LSB.

 

CAUTION:

As the HV counter's value is not valid during vertical blanking, check to be sure that it is active scan before using the value.

 


  § 7  DMA TRANSFER

 

DMA (Direct Memory Access) is a high speed technique for memory accesses to the VRAM. CRAM and VSRAM. During DMA VRAM, CRAM and VSRAM occur at the fastest possible rate (please see the section on access timing).  There are three modes of DMA access. as can be seen below. all of which may be done to VRAM or CRAM or VSRAM. The 68K is stopped during memory to VRAM/CRAM/VSRAM DMA, but the Z80 continues to run as long as it does not attempt access to the 68K memory space.

 

The DMA is quite fast during VBLANK. about double the tightest possible 68K Top's speed, but during active scan the speed is the same as a 68K loop.

 

Please note that after this point. VRAM is used as a generic term for

VRAM/CRAM/VSRAM.

 

DMD1

DMD0

DMA MODE

SIZE

0

SA23

A. MEMORY TO V-RAM

WORD to BYTE(H)&(L)

1

0

B. VRAM FILL

BYTE to BYTE

1

1

C.  VRAM COPY

BYTE to BYTE

              DMD1, DMD0:  REG #23     * DMD0=SA23

 

Source address are $000000-$3FFFFF(ROM) and $FFOOOO--$FFFFFF(RAM)

for memory to VRAM transfers.  In the case of ROM to VRAM transfers,

a hardware feature causes occasional failure of DMA unless the

following two conditions are observed:

 

--The destination address write (to address $C00004) must be a word

  write.

--The final write must use the work RAM.

  There are two ways to accomplish this, by copying the DMA program

  into RAM or by doing a final "move.w ram address $C00004"

 

_ MEMORY TO VRAM _

 

The function transfers data from 68K memory to VRAM, CRAM or VSRAM.  During this DMA all 68K processing stops. The source address is

$000000-$3FFFFF for ROM or $FFOOOO-$FFFFFF for RAM.  The DMA reads are word wide. writes are byte wide for VRAM and word wide for CRAM and VSRAM.  The destination is specified by:

 

CD2

CD1

CD0

MEMORY TYPE

0

0

1

VRAM

0

1

1

CRAM

1

0

1

VSRAM

 


  Setting of DMA

 

  (A) M1 (REG. #1)=1 : DMA ENABLE

  (B) Increment No. set to #15 (normally 2)

  (C) Transfer word No. set into #19, #20.

  (D) Source address and DMA mode set into #21, #22, #23.

  (E) Set the destination address.

  (F)*VDP gets the CPU bus.

  (G)*DMA start.

  (H)*VDP releases the CPU bus.

  (I) M1 have to be 0 after confirmation of DMA finish : DMA DISABLED

 

 DMA starts after (E).

You must set M1=1 only during DMA otherwise we cannot guarantee the

operation. Source address were increased with +2 and destination

address increased with content of resister #15.

 

 Content : of register.  Register #1 has another bits.

 

            INC7 ~ INC0  :  No. of increment

 

               LG15 - LG0  :  No. of move word

               SA23 - SA1  :  Source address (in 68000)

               DA15 - DAO  :  Destination address (in VDP)

               CD2  - CDO  :  RAM selection

 


  _  VRAM FILL  _

 

FILL mode fills with same data from free even VRAM address.

FILL for only VRAM.

 

 How to set FILL(DMA).

 

 (A)  M1 (REG. #1)=1 : DMA ENABLE

 (B)  Increment No. set to #15 (normally 1).

 (C)  Fill size set to #19, #20.

 (D)  DMA mode set to #23.

 (E)  Destination address and FILL data set.

 (F) *DMA start

 (G)  M1=O after confirmation of finishing

      :DMA DISABLED

 

DMA starts at after (E).

M1 should be 1 in the DMA transfer. otherwise we can't guarantee the

operation.  Destination address is incremented with register #15.  VDP

dose not asks bus open for CPU, but CPU cannot access VDP without PSG.

HV counter and status.  You can realize end of DMA, by DMA bit in status

register.

 

 Register setting.  Register#l has another bits.

 

               INC7 - INC0  :  Increment No.

 

                    DMA  :  1:  DMA BUSY

                      *  :  Not care


 

 

                  LG15 - LG0  :  FILL byte No.

                  DA15 - DA0  :  Destination address

                  FD15 - FD0  :  FILL date

 

When setting 1st and 2nd by long word.  1st will be D31 - D16

and 2nd, D15 - D0.

 


EXAMPLE:

 

          1 TERM:  FILL data are word;register #15=1

 

    a.  V-RAM address is even.

 

       (A)  First, low side of FILL data are written in V-RAM address.

       (B)  Second, upper side of FILL data are written in V-RAM+1.

       (C)  And, V-RAM address is added register #15, written upper side

            FILL data in V-RAM at next each step.

 

    b.  V-RAM address is odd.

 

       (D)  First, upper side of Fill data are written in

            V-RAM address-1.

       (E)  Second, low side of Fill data are written in V-RAM.

       (F)  Same as (C).

 

       •VRAM address is even:    •VRAM address is odd;

ADD

(A)

Even

 

ADD-1

(D)

Even

ADD+1

(B)  (C)

Odd

 

ADD

(E)

Odd

ADD+2

(C)

 

 

ADD+1

(F)

 

ADD+3

(C)

 

 

ADD+2

(F)

 

ADD+4

(C)

 

 

ADD+3

(F)

 

ADD+5

(C)

 

 

ADD+4

(F)

 

ADD+6

(C)

 

 

ADD+5

(F)

 

ADD+7

 

 

 

ADD+6

(F)

 

 

 

 

 

ADD+7

 

 

 

 * You must rewrite data (C) into ADD+1 after write data (B).


  2.  TERM: FILL data are word; resister #15=2

 

   •VRAM address=even             •VRAM  address=odd

ADD

(A)lower

Even

 

ADD-1

(D)upper

Even

ADD+1

(B)upper

Odd

 

ADD

(E)lower

Odd

ADD+2

(C)lower

 

 

ADD+1

 

 

ADD+3

upper

 

 

ADD+2

(F)upper

 

ADD+4

(C)lower

 

 

ADD+3

lower

 

ADD+5

upper

 

 

ADD+4

(F)upper

 

ADD+6

(C)lower

 

 

ADD+5

lower

 

ADD+7

upper

 

 

ADD+6

(F)upper

 

 

 

 

 

ADD+7

lower

 

 

 

 

  3.  TERM:  Fill data are byte.

 

a.  V-RAM address is even.

 

    (A) = (B) = (C) = BYTE * DATA

 

b.  V-RAM address is odd.

 

    (D) = (E) = (F) = BYTE * DATA

 


 _ VRAM COPY _

 

This function dose copy from source address to destination address by number of COPY byte.

 

 DMA setting

 

 (A)  M1 (REG. #1) = 1 :  DMA ENABLE

 (B)  Number of copy bytes in #19. #20

 (C)  Source address and DMA mode in #23.

 (D)  Destination address set.

 (E) *DMA transfer

 (F)  After confirming DMA finish

      :M1=O:DMA DISABLED

 

DMA starts when (D) above is finished.  Apply M1=1 only during DMA transfer.  In other cases, if M1=1 is set, there is no guaranty that it will function correctly.  At the time of DMA transfer, the destination address is incremented by the set value of REG. #15.  During DMA transfer. although the VDP does not require CPU to make a bus available, no access is possible from CPU to VDP except for PSG, HV counter.  STATUS READ. DMA transfer finish can be recognized by referring to the STATUS REGISTER's DMA bit.

 

Example:  With TRANSFER BYTE=3 at the time of VRAM COPY

 

                                REG#15=1                  REG#15=2

  SOURCE ADDRESS          DESTINATION ADDRESS      DESTINATION ADDRESS

DATA 1

 

DATA 1

 

DATA 1

DATA 2

 

DATA 2

 

 

DATA 3

 

DATA 3

 

DATA 2

DATA 4

 

 

 

 

DATA 5

 

 

 

DATA 3

DATA 6

 

 

 

 

DATA 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*  CAUTION

 In the case of VRAM COPY,  "read from VRAM" and "write to VRAM" are

repeated per byte.  Therefore, when the SOURCE AREA and TRANSFER AREA

are over lapped, the transfer may not be performed correctly.

 


The attenuators are set for the four channels by writing the following bytes to I/O location $7F:

 

Tone Generator #1:

1

0

0

1

A3

A2

A1

A0

Tone Generator #2:

1

0

1

1

A3

A2

A1

A0

Tone Generator #3:

1

1

0

1

A3

A2

A1

A0

Noise Generator:

1

1

1

1

A3

A2

A1

A0

 

EXAMPLE

 

..When the Mk3 is powered on, the following code is executed:

 

        LD     HL,CLRTB    ; clear table

        LD     C,PSG_PRT   ; psg port is $7F

        LD     B,4         ; load four bytes

        OTIR               ; write them

        (etc.)

 

 CLTB   defb $9F,$BF,$DF,$FF

 

This code turns the four sound channels off. It's a good idea to also execute this code when the PAUSE button is pressed, so that the sound does not stay on continuously for the pause interval.

 


REGISTER are as follows.  REGISTER #1 includes bits set for purposes other than DMA.  Therefore, pay careful attention in this regard.

 

            INC7 ~ INC0  :  Increment No.

 

                    DMA  :  1:  DMA BUSY

 

               LG15 - LG0  :  Number of copy byte

               SA23 - SA1  :  Source address

               DA15 - DAO  :  Destination address

 

When setting 1st and 2nd by long word,  1st will be D31 - D16

and 2nd, D15 - D0.


_ DMA TRANSFER CAPACITY _

 

 Transfer quantity varies depending on the DISPLAY MODE as follows:

 

 

DMA MODE

DISPLAY MODE

SCREEN SCANNING

TRANSFER BYTES

PER LINE

MEMORY

H32 CELL

DURING EFFECTIVE SCREEN

DURING V BLANK

 16 Bytes

167 Bytes

  TO VRAM

H40 CELL

DURING EFFECTIVE SCREEN

DURING V BLANK

 18 Bytes

205 Bytes

VRAM FILL

H32 CELL

DURING EFFECTIVE SCREEN

DURING V BLANK

 15 Bytes

166 Bytes

 

H40 CELL

DURING EFFECTIVE SCREEN

DURING V BLANK

 17 Bytes

204 Bytes

VRAM COPY

H32 CELL

DURING EFFECTIVE SCREEN

DURING V BLANK

  8 Bytes

 83 Bytes

 

H40 CELL

DURING EFFECTIVE SCREEN

DURING V BLANK

  9 Bytes

102 Bytes

 

 

In the MEMORY TO VRAM. in the case where CRAM and VSRAM are the destinations, number of words (not byte) should apply.  One line during V BLANK allows for data transfer to all the address of CRAM and VSRAM.

 

Note that when calculating, the transfer quantity in one screen (1/60 sec) varies depending on the number of LINES during V BLANK (refer to DISPLAY MODE) in the case of NTSC (video signal) and PAL systems.

 

DISPLAY MODE

No. of Horizontal line

V 28 CELL (NTSC)

36

V 28 CELL (PAL)

87

V 30 CELL (PAL)

71

 

 

 Where REGISTER #1 DISP=O, 1, e..  when on-screen display is not made, the TRANSFER quantity is the same as TRANSFER BYTES PER LINE during BLANKING.

 


 

    §8  SCROLLING SCREEN

 

 There are two different scroll screens, i.e.  A and B which separately can scroll vertically and horizontally on a basis of a one dot unit.  In the horizontal direction, scrolling overall or based on a one cell unit or one line unit can be selected.  And in the vertical direction. scrolling overall or in. a two cell unit can be selected.  Also, the scroll screen size can be changed on a basis of a 32 cell unit.

 

 

For the scrolling screen display, the following REGISTER setting and VRAM area are required.

 

SCROLL "A" PATTERN NAME TABLE BASE ADDRESS

 

SCROLL "B" PATTERN NAME TABLE BASE ADDRESS

 

MODE SET REGISTER No. 3

 

MODE SET REGISTER No. 4

 

H SCROLL DATA TABLE BASE ADDRESS

 

SCROLL SIZE

 

VRAM      :    SCROLL "A" PATTERN NAME TABLE       Max 8KByte

               SCROLL "B" PATTERN NAME TABLE       Max 8KByte

               H SCROLL DATA TABLE                 Max 960 Byte

 

VSRAM     :    V SCROLL DATA TABLE                 Max 80 Byte

 


_ SCROLLING SCREEN SIZE _

 

The screen size can be set by VSZ1, VSZ0, HSZ1, and HSZ0 (REG. #16).

The following 6 kinds can be set both for SCROLL SCREEN A and B.

 

      32*32/32*64/32*128

      64*32/64*64

     128*32

 

VSZ1

VSC0

FUNCTION

 

HSZ1

HSZ0

FUNCTION

0

0

V 32 CELL

 

0

0

H 32 CELL

0

1

V 64 CELL

 

0

1

H 64 CELL

1

0

PROHIBITED

 

1

0

PROHIBITED

1

1

V 128 CELL

 

1

1

H 128 CELL

 

 SCROLL SCREEN's PATTERN NAME TABLE ADDRESS exits in the VRAM and is designated by REGISTER #2 and #4.  Depending VRAM and SCROLL screen correspond to each other differently.

 

EXAMPLE

 


 

 

A Value shown in a frame indicates an offset from the PATTERN NAME TABLE BASE ADDRESS.

 

_ HORIZONTAL SCROLLING _

 

The DISPLAY SCREEN allows for scrolling overall, or based on one cell unit, or on an dot by dot basis in one line unit.  Either one of the above scrolling can be selected by HSCR and LSCR (REGISTER#11).  A setting applies to both SCROLL screen A and B.

 

HSCR

LSCR

FUNCTION

0

0

OVERALL SCROLLING

0

1

PROHIBITED

1

0

SCROLL IN ONE CELL UNIT

1

1

SCROLL IN ONE LINE UNIT

                              HSCR,  LSCR:  REG.  #11

 

The effective scroll quantity is equivalent to 10 bits (OOOH-3FFFH).

 

Taking the DISPLAY SCREEN as standard,  the SCROLL direction will be as follows:

 

 

 


Horizontally scrolling quantity setting area:  H Scroll DATA TABLE is in VRAM.  From the base address which was set by REG.#13. set the scrolling quantity of SCREEN A and B alternately.  Also the scrolling quantity data setting position varies depending on the following mode (OVERALL,

1 CELL. or 1 LINE).

 

MODE

SETTING POSITION

OVERALL

LINE C

1 CELL

EVERY 8th LINE STARTING FROM LINE 0

1 LINE

ALL LINES

 

    15 14 13 12 11 10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0

00

 

A•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

OVERALL,CELL,LINE

02

 

B•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

OVERALL,CELL,LINE

04

 

A•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

LINE

06

 

B•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

LINE

08

 

A•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

LINE

0A

 

B•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

LINE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1C

 

A•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

LINE

1E

 

B•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

LINE

20

 

A•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

CELL, LINE

22

 

B•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

CELL, LINE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3FC

 

A•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

LINE

3FE

 

B•SCROLLING QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

LINE

     D15 - D10 can be greatly utilized for program software.


 

_ V SCROLL _

 

The DISPLAY SCREEN allows for scrolling overall or every 2 Cells in a dot unit.  The setting can be done by VSCR (REG.#11).  A setting applies to both SCROLL SCREEN A and B.

 

VSCR

FUNCTION

0

OVERALL SCROLL

1

2-CELL UNIT SCROLL

                              VSCR:  REG #11

 

 

The scrolling quantity is equivalent to 11 bits (000H--7FFH).  However,

it will be as shown below in the INTERLACE MODE.

 

    NON INTERLACE: The effective scrolling quantity is equivalent

                     to 10 bits.

 

    INTERLACE 1: -ditto-

 

    INTERLACE 2: The effective scrolling quantity

                   is equivalent to 11 bits.

 

Taking the DISPLAY SCREEN as standard, the scrolling direction will be

as follows:

 


 

Set the V SCROLL quantity by VSRAM.  Alternately set the Scroll

quantity of SCREEN A and B.

 

Depending on the SCROLL MODE, the DATA setting positions differ.

 

MODE

SETTING POSITION

OVERALL

ONLY AT THE BEGINNING

2-CELL

SET TO ALL

 

 

      15 14 13 12 11 10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0

00

 

A: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

0,1 CELL,OVERALL

02

 

B: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

0,1 CELL,OVERALL

04

 

A: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

2,3 CELL

06

 

B: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

2,3 CELL

08

 

A: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

4,5 CELL

0A

 

B: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

4,5 CELL

0C

 

A: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

6,7 CELL

0E

 

B: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

6,7 CELL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4C

 

A: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN A

38,39 CELL

4E

 

B: SCROLL QUANTITY OF SCREEN B

38,39 CELL

                 D15 - D11 is indefinite.

 


 

_ SCROLL PATTERN NAME _

 

The SCROLL SCREEN's name table is in VRAM and set by REG. #2 and #4.

The PATTERN NAME requires 2 bytes (1 word) per CELL the SCROLL screen.

Depending on the SCROLL screen's size. VRAM and SCROLL SCREEN correspond

with each other differently.  Refer to SCROLL SCREEN SIZE.

 

                 pri  :  Refer to PRIORITY

                 cp1  :  Color palette selection hit

                         (See COLOR PALETTE)

                 cp0  :     -ditto-

                 vf   :  V REVERSE bit  1: REVERSE

                 hf   :  H REVERSE bit  1: REVERSE

                 pt10 - pt0  :  PATTERN GENERATOR NUMBER

 

 

REVERSE BIT vf and hf  : Allows for H and V reverse on CELL unit basis.

 

      vf = 0              vf = 1              vf = 0              vf = 1

      hf = 0              hf = 0              hf = 1              hf = 1

 


_ PATTERN GENERATOR _

 

 PATTERN GENERATOR has VRAM 0000H as ,base address, and a pattern is

expressed on a 8x8 dot basis.  To define a pattern, 32 bytes are required.  Starting from 0000H, it proceeds in the sequence of PATTERN GENERATOR O, 1, 2, ...  The relationship between the display pattern and memory is as follows:

 

 

 

 

The display colors and memory relationship is as follows:

 


 

In INTERLACE MODE 2, one cell consists of 8X16 dots and therefore,

64 Bytes (16 long words) are required.

 

 

 


 

    §  WINDOW

 

Fir WINDOW display, the following register setting and VRAM areas

are required.

 

WINDOW PATTERN NAME TABLE AND BASE ADDRESS

 

MODE SET REGISTER No. 4

 

WINDOW H POSITION

 

WINDOW V POSITION

 

 

VRAM:  WINDOW PATTERN NAME TABLE MAX 4K BYTES

 

 


 

_ DISPLAY POSITION _

 

The WINDOW DISPLAY POSITION is designated by REG #17 and #18.

 

Screen display can be divided on a unit basis of H 2 cells and V 1 cell.  The dividing position varies depending on resolution.

 

 

 

 

 

RIGT: 0  Displays WINDOW from the left end to H dividing position.

      1  Displays WINDOW from the H dividing position to the right end.

DOWN: 0  Displays WINDOW from the top end to the V dividing position.

      1  Displays WINDOW from the V dividing position to the bottom end.

WHP5 - WHP1  :  H dividing position

WVP4 - WVP0  :  V dividing position

 

H RESOLUTION

DIVIDING POSITION(WHP)

 

V RESOLUTION

DIVIDING POSITION(WHP)

32 CELL

0 - 16 (0 - 32 CELL)

 

28 CELL

0 - 28

40 CELL

0 - 20 (0 - 40 CELL)

 

30 CELL

0 - 30

 


 

 

SETTING EXAMPLE

 

REG. #17  :  00H + 01H  WINDOW from the left end to the second cell

REG. #18  :  00H + 10H  WINDOW from the top end to the 16th cell

 

 

 

REG. #17  :  80H + 02H  WINDOW from the left end 4th cell to the right end.

REG. #18  :  80H + 01H  WINDOW from the 2nd cell to the bottom end

 

 


 

REG. #17  :  80H + 01H  WINDOW from the 4th cell to the right end.

REG. #18  :  00H + 10H  WINDOW from the top end to the 16th cell.

 

 

 

 

REG. #17  :  00H + 02H  WINDOW to the 4th cell from the left.

REG. #18  :  80H + 01H  WINDOW from the 2nd cell to the bottom end.

 

 


_ WINDOW PRIORITY _

 

 WINDOW PRIORITY is handled in the same .way as in SCROLL A.  SCROLL A is not displayed in the area where WINDOW is displayed.  Also, only when WINDOW is set to the left and SCROLL A is moved in H direction, the character corresponding to 2 cells on the right side of the boundary between WINDOW and SCROLL A will be disfigured.  There will be no malfunctioning when the WINDOW is set to the left side and SCROLL A is moved only in V direction. and also when WINDOW is set to the right side.

 

 

_ WINDOW PATTERN NAME _

 

WINDOW PATTERN NAME TABLE is on VRAM, and the BASE ADDRESS is designated by REG. #13.  The PATTERN NAME, the same as in SCROLL SCREEN, requires

2 bytes ( 1 Word ) per cell.

 

                 pri  :  Refer to PRIORITY

                 cp1  :  Color palette selection hit

                         (See COLOR PALETTE)

                 cp0  :     -ditto-

                 vf   :  V REVERSE bit  1: REVERSE

                 hf   :  H REVERSE bit  1: REVERSE

                 pt10 - pt0  :  PATTERN GENERATOR NUMBER


 

PATTERN NAME and VRAM relation varies depending on H 32 cell/40 cell mode.  Pay careful attention to this point.

 

 

 

 

 

In the H 40 cell mode, there exists the area for H 64 cells.  However, there will be no display from the 41st cell in the H direction.

 

Also in the V 28 cell mode, there will be no display from V 29th cell and in the 30th cell mode.  There will be no display from 31st cell.

 


 

 

S/TEN = 1

SPRITE COLOR PALETTE   3      COLOR CODE   14

 

 

 

The dots of SPRITE COLOR CODE 15 work as an operator on the screen, the priority of which is lower than SPRITE.

 

Since SPRITE dots work as an operator, this will not be displayed.

 


 

When SPRITE is not related to PRIORITY, the following PRIORITY applies.

 

 

 

 


 

SETTING EXAMPLE

 

 

LINK DATA

 

 

SPRITE 0

2

 

SPRITE 0

SPRITE 1

10

 

SPRITE 2

SPRITE 2

1

 

SPRITE 1

SPRITE 3

4

 

SPRITE 10

SPRITE 4

5

 

SPRITE 11

SPRITE 5

15

 

SPRITE 13

SPRITE 6

----

 

SPRITE 3

SPRITE 7

0

 

SPRITE 4

SPRITE 8

----

 

SPRITE 5

SPRITE 9

----

 

SPRITE 15

SPRITE 10

11

 

SPRITE 7

SPRITE 11

13

 

 

SPRITE 12

----

 

 

SPRITE 13

3

 

 

SPRITE 14

----

 

 

SPRITE 15

7

 

 

SPRITE 16

----

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 11 SPRITEs shown in the DISPLAY PRIORITY are displayed on the screen.  SPRITE No. 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, and 16 onward are not displayed because they are not linked with LINK DATA LIST.

 


 

_ SPRITE PATTERN GENERATOR _

 

The SPRITE PATTERN GENERATOR with VRAM OOOOH as BASE ADDRESS, expresses

one pattern on a basis of 8x8 dots.  32 bytes are required to define one

pattern.  Every 32 bytes, one pattern is expressed in the sequence of

PATTERN GENERATOR 0, 1, 2...  The relationship of DISPLAY PATTERN and MEMORY is the same as in PATTERN GENERATOR.  Also, SPRITE SIZE and PATTERN GENERATOR relationship is as follows:

 

 

 


 

    §  11  PRIORITY

 

 PRIORITY between SPRITE, SCROLL A and SCROLL B can be designated.

 

PRIORITY can be designated by each PATTERN NAME and ATTRIBUTE PRIORITY

bit.  It will be set for the SCROLL SCREEN on a cell unit basis and for

each SPRITE.  By combining each priority bit, PRIORITY will be as follows:

However, the BACKGROUND PRIORITY is always the lowest.

 

 

S pri

A pri

B pri

PRIORITY

0

0

0

S>A>B>G

1

0

0

S>A>B>G

0

1

0

A>S>B>G

1

1

0

S>A>B>G

0

0

1

B>S>A>G

1

0

1

S>B>A>G

0

1

1

A>B>S>G

1

1

1

S>A>B>G

 

                      S  :  SPRITE

                      A  :  SCROLL A

                      B  :  SCROLL B

                      G  :  BACKGROUND

 

Also, by combining S/TEN (REG. #12) and the above priority, SHADOW - HIGHLIGHT effect function can be utilized.


 

S/TEN = 0

 

The above shows PRIORITY situation of SPRITE, SCROLL A. SCROLL B and

BACKGROUND.  The dot to which COLOR CODE 0 is designated is transparent,

therefore. either one of SCROLL SCREEN A, B. or BACKGROUND, the priority

of which is one step lower than the transparent one, will appear.

 


 

S/TEN = 1

SPRITE COLOR PALETTE  0 - 3      COLOR CODE   0 - 15

       COLOR PALETTE   3        COLOR CODE   0 - 13

 

 

Where S/TEN=1, when the PRIORITY bit of both SCROLL A and SCROLL B is O, there will be SHADOW.  For the color status, refer to the color palette.

 


 

 

S/TEN = 1

SPRITE COLOR PALETTE   3      COLOR CODE   15

 

 

 

The dots of SPRITE COLOR code 15 work as a SHADOW operator on the screen, the priority of which is lower than the SPRITE.

 

Since SPRITE dots work as an operator, this will not be displayed.

 


 

    §  INTERLACE MODE

 

RASTER SCAN MODE can be changed by setting LSM0 and LSM1 (REG. #12).

 

LSM1

LSM0

RASTER SCAN MODE

0

0

NON INTERLACE MODE

0

1

In the NON-INTERLACE mode, the same PATTERN is displayed on the rasters of even and odd numbered fields.

(INTERLACE 1)

1

1

In the INTERLACE mode, the different PATTERN is displayed on the rasters of even and odd numbered fields.

(INTERLACE 2)

 

 

In the INTERLACE MODE and INTERLACE 1, one cell is defined by 8x8 dots

and in INTERLACE 2, 8x16 dots.  For DISPLAY, one cell consists of 8x8 dots in the NON INTERLACE MODE and in the INTERLACE MODE 8x16 dots.

 

In any case, number of cells in one screen are the same.

 

Depending on the type of DISPLAY, in the case of INTERLACE DISPLAY, there may occur a serious blur in the vertical direction.  Therefore, when using the DISPLAY pay careful attention in this regard.

 


 

 


 

    3.  BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY MODE

 

In the case of BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY MODE. the MEGA DRIVE differs

from the original Mark III & MASTER SYSTEM in the following points:

 

_ MARK III '(MS-JAPAN) _

 

 

OS-ROM is not incorporated.

 

 

ROM CARTRIDGE/CARD selections are made by hardware in the same manner

as in the case of MARK III.  START UP SLOT number is not written in OCOOOH.  START UP Sega logo is not displayed.

 

FM sound source is not incorporated.

 

FM sound is incorporated in MS-JAPAN (standard) and MARK III (optional)

(OPLL).  However, MEGA DRIVE has no option for that, although connection

is possible.  Consider the MEGA DRIVE's Japanese Specifications as that of MARK III with MS-JAPAN's JOYSTICK Port, or as MS-JAPAN without FM sound source and OS-ROM.

 

_ MASTER SYSTEM _

 

OS-ROM is not incorporated.

 

OCOOOH-ODFFFH RAM is not clear on POWER-UP.

RAM OCOO0 has no meaningful value.

START UP Sega logo not displayed.

 

FM sound source is not incorporated.

 

FM sound source is incorporated in MS by option

(OPLL). However, MEGA DRIVE has no option, although

connection is possible.

 

Please regard the MEGA DRIVE overseas version

as a MASTER SYSTEM without an Operating System

ROM.

 

_ RAM BOARD _

 

In the MEGA DRIVE's MARK III & MASTER SYSTEM

BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY MODE, the RAM BOARD for

development (for which D-RAM was used) can not be

used due to the problem of REFRESH. The other

BOARDs for development (which utilizes S-RAM) can

be used without any problem.

 


 

    4.  SYSTEM I/O

 

MEGA DRIVE SYSTEM I/O area assignment starts

from $AOOOO0, with the Z80 SUB-CPU's memory area.

 

    § 1  VERSION NO.

 

 Indicates the Mega Drive's hardware version.

 

               MODE   (R )   0: Domestic Model

                             1: Overseas Model

               VMOD   (R )   0: NTSC CPU clock 7.67 MHz

                             1: PAL CPU clock 7.60 MHz

               DISK   (R )   0: FDD unit connected

                             1: FDD unit not connected

               RSV    (R )   Currently not used

               VER3-0 (R )   MEGA DRIVE version is indicated by $0-$F.

                        The present hardware version is indicated by $0.

 

    § 2  I/O PORT

 

The MEGA DRIVE has the three general purpose I/0 ports,

CTRL1, CTRL2 and EXP.  Although each port differs from

the others in physical shape it functions in the same manner.

Each port has the following S REGISTERs for CONTROL.

 

          DATA      (PARALLEL DATA)      : R/W

          CTRL      (PARALLEL CONTROL)   : R/W

          S-CTRL    (SERIAL CONTROL)     : R/W

          TxDATA    (Txd DATA)           : R/W

          RxDATA    (Rxd DATA)           : R

 


 

 

The relationship between REGISTERs is as follows:

 

 

 

      I/O  :  I/O change

      P/S  :  PARALLEL/SERIAL MODE change

      INT  :  INTERRUPT CONTROL

      S>P  :  SERIAL-PARALLEL CONVERSION

      P>S  :  PARALLEL-SERIAL CONVERSION

 


 

  Mapping is as follows.

 

           $A10003  :  DATA 1 ( CTRL1 )

           $A10005  :  DATA 2 ( CTRL2 )

           $A10007  :  DATA 3 ( EXP   )

           $A10009  :  CTRL 1

           $A1OOOB  :  CTRL 2

           $A1OOOD  :  CTRL 3

           $A1OOOF  :  TxDATA 1

           $A1OO11  :  RxDATA 1

           $A10013  :  S-CTRL 1

           $A10015  :  TxDATA 2

           $A10017  :  RxDATA 2

           $A10019  :  S-CTRL 2

           $A1OO1B  :  TxDATA 3

           $A1001D  :  RxDATA 3

           $A1OO1F  :  S-CTRL 3

 

Both BYTE and WORD access are possible.

However, in the case of WORD access, only the

lower byte is meaningful.

 

DATA shows the status of each port.

The I/O direction of each bit is set by CTRL

and S-CTRL.

 

           PD7 (RW)

           PD6 (RW) TH

           PD5 (RW) TR

           PD4 (RW) TL

           PD3 (RW) RIGHT

           PD2 (RW) LEFT

           PDI (RW) DOWN

           PDO (RW) UP

 


 

CTRL designates the I/O direction of each port and the

INTERRUPT CONTROL of TH.

 

              INT (RW) O: TH-INT PROHIBITED

                       1: TH-INT ALLOWED

              PC6 (RW) O: PDB INPUT MODE

                       1: OUTPUT MODE

              PC5 (RW) O: PDS INPUT MODE

                       1: OUTPUT MOPE

              PC4 (RW) O: PD4 INPUT MODE

                       1: OUTPUT MODE

              PC3 (RW) O: PDS INPUT MODE

                       1: OUTPUT MODE

              PC2 (RW) O: PD2 INPUT MODE

                       1: OUTPUT MODE

              PC1 (RW) O: PD1 INPUT MODE

                       1: OUTPUT MODE

              PCO (RW) O: PDO INPUT MODE

                       1: OUTPUT MODE

 

 S-CTRL is for the status, etc. of each port's mode change,

baud rate and SERIAL.

 

             SIN  (RW) O: TR-PARALLEL MODE

                       1:    SERIAL IN

             SOUT (RW) O: TL-PARALLEL MODE

                       1:    SERIAL OUT

             RINT (RW) O: Rxd READY INTERRUPT PROHIBITED

                       1: Rxd READY INTERRUPT ALLOWED

             RERR (R)  O:

                       1: Rxd ERROR

             RRDY (R ) O:

                       1: Rxd READY

             TFUL (R ) O:

                       1: Txd FULL

 

BPS1

BPS0

bps

0

0

4800

0

1

2400

1

0

1200

1

1

300

 


 

 MEMORY MODE

 

The MEGA DRIVE is able to generate internally

the REFRESH signal for the D-RAM development

cartridge.  When using the development cartridge

set to D-RAM MODE. In the case of a production

cartridge, set to ROM MODE.

 

 Only D8 of address $A11OO0 is effective and for WRITE ONLY.

 

           $A11OO0       D8 ( W)   O: ROM MODE

                                   1: D-RAM MODE

 

ACCESS to $A11OO0 can be based on BYTE.

 

    §  4  Z80 CONTROL

 

_ Z80 BUSREQ _

 

 When accessing the Z80 memory from the 68000,

first stop the Z80 by using BUSREQ.  At the time

of POWER ON RESET, the 68000 has access to the

Z80 bus.

 

           $A11100       D8 ( W)   O: BUSREQ CANCEL

                                   1: BUSREQ REQUEST

                            ( R )  0: CPU FUNCTION STOP ACCESSIBLE

                                   1: FUNCTIONING

 

 Access to Z80 AREA in the following manner.

 

    (1) Write $0100 in $A11100 by using a WORD access.

    (2) Check to see that D8 of $A111OO becomes O.

    (3) Access to Z80 AREA.

    (4) Write $0000 in $A111O0 by using a WORD access.

 

 Access to $A111O0 can also be based on BYTE.

 

_ Z80 RESET _

 

 The 68000 may also reset the Z80.  The Z80 is automatically reset during the MEGA DRIVE hardware's POWER ON RESET sequence.

 

           $A11200       DS ( W)   O: RESET REQUEST

                                   1: RESET CANCEL

 

 Access to $A111O0 can also be based on BYTE.

 


 

 §5 Z80 AREA

 

Mapping is performed starting from SAOOOO0 for Z80. a SUB-CPU.

 

As viewed from 68000. the memory map will be as follows:

 

 

 

_ SOUND RAM _

 

This is for the Z80 program.

Access from 6800 by BYTE.

 

_ SOUND CHIP _

 

This is the mapping area for FM sound source (YM 2612).  When accessing from 68000 use BYTE due to timing problem.

 

_ BANK REGISTER _

 

Access to the 68000 side MEMORY AREA from Z80 will be based on a 32K BYTE unit.  At this time, this REGISTER sets which BANK is to be accessed.  Registering from 68000 can be set, however, do not access to Z80 Bank MEMORY AREA by 68000.

 


SETTING METHOD

 

When accessing to the 68000 side addresses from Z80 side, all the addresses can be classified into BANKs.   BANK can be set by writing 9 times in 0 bit of 8000 (Z80 Address).  The 9 bits correspond to 68000 address 15 - 23 as shown below:

 

 


 

 

5.  VRAM MAPPING

 

In VRAM, there are various TABLEs and PATTERN GENERATORs as stated below.  Among those, the base address of PATTERN GENERATOR TABLE and SPRITE GENERATOR TABLE are 0000H and fixed.  However, the other base addresses can be freely assigned in VRAM by setting VDP REGISTER.  Also, AREA can be overlapped.  Therefore, TABLE can be commonly used by SCROLL screen and WINDOW for example.

 

SCROLL A PATTERN NAME TABLE Max. 8K Byte.

  Base address designated by Register #2.

SCROLL B PATTERN NAME TABLE Max. 8K Byte.

  Base address designated by REGISTER #4.

WINDOW PATTERN NAME TABLE varies by H Resolution

  Base address designated by REGISTER #3.

H SCROLL DATA TABLE 1K Byte

  Base address designated by REGISTER #13

SPRITE ATTRIBUTE TABLE Varies by H Resolution

  Base address designated by REGISTER #5

PATTERN GENERATOR TABLE

  Base address is 0000H (fixed).

SPRITE GENERATOR TABLE

  Base address is 0000H (fixed).

 

There are 1K Bytes for H SCROLL TABLE, however, as for display 896 Bytes in V28 cell mode and 980 bytes in V30 cell mode.  There are 2K bytes for WINDOW PATTERN NAME TABLE in H32 cell mode, and 4K byte area in H 40 cell mode.  For details refer to WINDOW.  There are 512 bytes for SPRITE ATTRIBUTE TABLE in H32 cell and 1K byte area in H40 cell mode.  However as for display, there are 640 bytes in H40 cell mode.


 

Setting example

 

    1  H 32 cell mode

 

SCROLL A PATTERN NAME TABLE

  8K Bytes from 0C000H  :  REG. #2 = $30

SCROLL B PATTERN NAME TABLE

  8K Bytes from 0E000H  :  REG. #4 = $07

WINDOW PATTERN NAME TABLE

  2K Bytes from 0B000H  :  REG. #3 = $2C

H SCROLL DATA TABLE

  1K Bytes from 0B800H  :  REG. #13= $2E

SPRITE ATTRIBUTE TABLE

  512 Bytes from 0BE00H  :  REG. #5 = $5F

 

Unoccupied area is used as PATTERN GENERATOR and SPRITE GENERATOR.

 

 

 


 

    2  H40 cell mode

 

SCROLL A PATTERN NAME TABLE

  8K Bytes from 0C000H  :  REG. #2 = $30

SCROLL B PATTERN NAME TABLE

  8K Bytes from 0E000H  :  REG. #4 = $07

WINDOW PATTERN NAME TABLE

  4K Bytes from 0B000H  :  REG. #3 = $2C

H SCROLL DATA TABLE

  2K Bytes from 0AC00H  :  REG. #13= $2B

SPRITE ATTRIBUTE TABLE

  1K Bytes from 0A800H  :  REG. #5 = $54

 

Unoccupied area is used as PATTERN GENERATOR and SPRITE GENERATOR.

 

 

 


 

PRECAUTIONS FOR MS (MASTER SYSTEM) SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING

 

 When programming the MS software, pay attention to the following:

 

 

1.  The program of DMA (RAM, ROM-VRAM, CRAM, VSRAM)

    should be resident in RAM, or it should be as

    in LIST1 for example.  However, in either one

    on the above 2 cases, a long word access is

    not possible as regards the last VRAM address

    set.

 

2.  ID should be as in the next page.

 

3.  Put LIST2 at your program's start.

    This is the U.S. security software.

 

LIST1

 

DMA_RAM:

         lea     vdp_cmd,An            ; vdp_cmd: $COOOOO

                                       ; An = ADDRESS REGISTER

         ;  Set source ADDRESS to VDP REGISTER

         ;  Set DATA LENGTH to VDP REGISTER

         move.l  xx,ramO               ; xx: DESTINATION ADDRESS

                                       ; ramO :WORK RAM

         move.w  ramO,(An)

         move.w  ramO+2,(An)            ; Pay careful attention to the

                                        ; sequential order of 1st

                                        ; word and 2nd word.

         rts                            ; DESTINATION ADDRESS should be set

                                        ; by WORD and not by LONG WORD.

 

 

LIST 2

 

         move.b  $A1OOO1,dO             ; Get version number

         andi.b  #$0F,dO                ;

         beq.b   ?0                     ; If not version $0

         move.l  $'SEGA',$A14000        ; Output ASCII

 

?0:


ROM CARTRIDGE DATA FOR MEGA DRIVE

 

Write in ROM's 100H-1FFH.

 

100H:    'SEGA MEGA DRIVE '                                  1

110H:    '(C)SEGA 1988.JUL'                                  2

120H:    GAME NAME (DOMESTIC)                                3

150H:    GAME NAME (OVERSEAS)                                4

180H:    'GM XXXXXXX-XX'                                     5

18EH:    $XXXX                                               6

190H:    CONTROL DATA                                        7

1A0H:    $000000, $XXXXXX                                    8

1A8H:    $FFOOOO, $FFFFFF                                    9

lB0H:    EXTERNAL RAM DATA                                  10

1BCH:    MODEM DATA                                         11

1C8H:    MEMO                                               12

1F0H:    Country in which the product                       13

         can be released.

 

 1:  SEGA system name and TITLE in common with all ROMs.

 2:  Copyright notice and year/month of release (Firm name in ASCII 4

     character.)

 3:  Game name for Domestic (JIS KANJI CODE OK)

 4:  Game name for overseas market (JIS KANJI CODE OK)

 5:  Type of CARTRIDGE and Products, NO.. Version No.

             TYPE    GAME     : GM

                     EDUCATION: Al

             NO.     PRODUCT NO.

             VER.    Data varies depending on the type of ROM or

                     software version.

 6:  Check sum

 7:  I/0 use support data

             JOYSTICK FOR MS     : 0             TABLET              : T

             JOYSTICK            : J             CONTROL BALL        : B

             KEYBOARD            : K             PADDLE CONTROLLER   : V

             SERIAL (RS232C)     : R             FDD                 : F

             PRINTER             : P             CDROM               : C

 8:  ROM capacity      START ADDRESS, END ADDRESS

 9:  RAM capacity      START ADDRESS, END ADDRESS

1O:  When no external RAM is mounted, fill the address by

     a space code and when it is mounted follow the following:

              1 B 0 H:   dc.b         'RA',%1x1yzOOO,%00100000

                  x      1 for BACKUP and 0 If not BACKUP

                y z      10 if even address only. 11 if odd address only

                         00 if both even and odd address

              1 B 4 H:   dc.l         RAM start address RAM end address

11:  If corresponding to MODEM, fill it by space code and if not, follow the following:   1 B C H:   dc.b         'MO','xxxx','yy.z'

                    xxxx  Firm name the same as in 2

                    yy    MODEM NO.

                    z     Version

13:  Data of the countries in which the product can be released.

                 JAPAN                      : J

                 USA                        : U

                 EUROPE                     : E

Be sure to input a space code in the unoccupied 1 ~ 7, 9 ~ 13 space.


 

 HOW TO OBTAIN CHECK SUM

 

The CHECK SUM obtaining program is shown as follows. The program starts with OFF8OOOH, RAM space.  First. fill game capacity by -1 (OFFH) and then load all of the programs.  Next, load the CHECK SUM program and run the program from OFF8OOOH.  After a while, stop running the program.  At this time, the lower WORD of DATA REGISTER 0 (dO) is the CHECK SUM value.  Note that BREAK in MEMORY should be canceled in advance.

Also, when burning to ROM, first fill the game capacity by -1 (OFFH).

 

end_addr          equ      $1A4

        org       -$8000

 

start:

                  move.l   (aO),d1

                  addq.l   #$1,d1

                  movea.l  #$200,aO

                  sub.l    aO,d1

                  amr.l    s1,d1               ; counter

                  move     d1,d2 .,

                  subq.w   #$1,d2

                  swap     d1

                  moveq    #$O,dO

           ?l2:

                  add      (aO)+,dO

                  dbra     d2,?l2

                  dbra     d1,?l2

                  nop

                  nop

                  nop

                  nop

                  nop

                  nop

         ?le:

                  nop

                  nop

                  bra.b   ?Ie

 


 

MEMORY MAPPING FOR EMULATION

 

For the 68000 EMULATION

 

All address should be disabled initially: 0 to OFFFFFF

 

Required areas should then be enabled as follows:

 

         1. Program and Data are in 0 to O07FFFF

         2. S-RAM is for Z-80 in OAOOOO0 to OAO1FFF

         3. FM sound chip interface is in OA04000 to OAO4FFF

         4. I/O and Z-80 control port are in OA1OOO0 to OA11FFF

         5. VDP and sound control port are in OCOOOOO to OCOOFFF

         6. Scratch RAM is in OFFOOO0 to OFFFFFF

 

 RAM CARD (No. 171-5642-02)

 

This board has two memory areas;

 

    MAIN MEMORY     (D-RAM) $000000 - $OFFFFF

    BACK UP MEMORY  (S-RAM) $200000 - $203FFF

 

I.  INITIALIZE

          Write O1OOH into $OA11OO0

          Write    1  into $OA130FO

          (Green LED light up)

 

2.  WRITE PROTECT

          Write 3 into $OA130FO

          (Red LED light up)

 

3.  READ/WRITE

          Write 1 into $OA130FO

          (Red LED turns off)

 

4.  NOTE - Emulator access to these ports should be enabled before the

           writes, then disabled after words.

 

 


 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENESIS SOUND

 

SOFTWARE MANUAL

 


 

 

INDEX

 

I.     Z80 MAPPING

         (1)  Z80 MEMORY MAP

         (2)  INTERRUPT

 

II.   68K CONTROL OF Z-80

         (1) Z80 START UP

         (2) Z80 HANDSHAKE

 

III.  FM SOUND CONTROL

        (1) 68K ACCESS FM CHIP

        (2) Z80 ACCESS FM CHIP

 

IV.   PSG CONTROL

 

V.    D/A CONTROL

 

This manual explains memory mapping and way of accessing especially.

FM sound generation and PSG are explained another manual.


 

I.  Z80 MAPPING

 

  (2) Z80 MAP

 

      We show the memory at right.

      I/O is contained in memory map.

 

      1) PROGRAM AREA

      Program, data and scratch are in 0 to 1FFFH,

      is S-RAM.

 

      2)  BANK

      From 8000H - FFFFH is window of 68K memory.

      Z-80 can access all of 68K memory by BANK

      switching.   BANK select data create 68K address

      from A15 to A23.  You must write these 9 bits

      one at a time into 6000H serially, byte units,

      using the LSB.

 

 

 


 

  3)I/O

  4000H  FM1 register select (Channel 1-3)

  4001H  FM1 DATA

 

  4002H  FM2 register select (Channel 4-6)

  4003H  FM2 DATA

 

 PSG address is in 7F11H.

 

  (2)  INTERRUPT

 

  Z-80 gets the only VIDEO vertical interrupt.

 

 This interrupt is generated 16ms period and 64ms length.

 

II    68K CONTROL OF Z80

 

  (1)  Z80 START UP

       Z-80 OPERATION SEQUENCE.

 

    (1) BUS REQ ON

    (2) BUS RESET OFF

    (3) 68K copies program into Z-80 S-RAM

    (4) BUS RESET ON

    (5) BUS REQ OFF

    (6) BUS RESET OFF

 

                     BUS REQUEST

 

                        BUS REQ ON

                        DATA 100H (WORD) -> $A111O0

 

                        BUS REQ OFF

                        DATA OH (WORD)   -> $A111O0

 


 

               RESET Z-80

               • RESET ON

                 DATA   OH (Word) -> $A11200

 

               • RESET OFF

                 DATA 100H (Word) -> $A11200

 

               This period requires 26ms.

               Also FM sound source is cleared at the same time.

 

 

 

          CONFIRMATION OF BUS STATUS

 

            This information is in $A11100 bit 0

 

            0 - Z80 is using

 

            1 - 68K can access

 

 

 

(2)  Z80 HANDSHAKE

     If you access the Handshake area (A00000 - A07FFF) you must use

     BUS REQ.  68K has to access the Z-80 S-RAM by byte.

 

III.    FM SOUND CONTROL

      (1)  68K accesses the FM source.

           68K needs BUS REQ when accessing the FM source,

           because this memory is controlled by Z-80.

 

      (2)  Z80 accesses the FM source.

           Z80 normally controls the FM (4000H - 4003H)

 

IV.    PSG CONTROL

 

       PSG accepts access of 68K and Z80 anytime, but you have to

       coordinate 68K and Z80 accesses.

       PSG is in $C00011 from 68K and in 7F11H from Z80.

 

 


 

OVERVIEW

 

The Yamaha 2612 Frequency Modulation (FM) sound synthesis IC resembles the Yamaha 2151 (used in Sega's coin-op machines) and the chips used in Yamaha's synthesizers.

 

 It's capabilities include:

 

--  6 channels of FM sound

--  An 8-bit Digitized Audio channel (as replacement for one of the

         FM channels) -- Stereo output capability

--  One LFO(low frequency oscillator) to distort the FM sounds

--  2 timers. for use by software

 

     To define these terms more carefully; an FM channel is capable of expressing, with a high degree of realism, a single note in almost any instrument's voice. Chords are generally created by using multiple FM channels.

 

     The standard FM channels each have a single overall frequency and data for how to turn this frequency into the complex final wave form (the voice).  This conversion process uses four dedicated channel components called 'operators', each possessing a frequency (a variant of the overall frequency), an envelope, and the capability to modulate its input using the frequency and envelope.  The operator frequencies are offsets of integral multiples of the overall frequency.

 

     There are two sets of three FM channels, named channels 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 respectively. Channels 3 and 6, the last in each set, have the capability to use a totally separate frequency for each operator rather than offsets of integral multiples.  This works well (l believe) for percussion instruments, which have harmonics at odd multiples such as 1.4 or 1.7 of the fundamental.

 

     The 8-bit Digitized Audio exists as a replacement of FM channel 6, meaning that turning on the DAC turns off FM channel 6.  Unfortunately, all timing must be done by software -- meaning that unless the software has been very cleverly constructed, it is impossible to use any of the FH channels at the same time as the DAC.

 

 


Page 2

 

      Stereo output capability means that any of the sounds. FM or DAC, may be directed to the left, the right, or both outputs.  The stereo is output only through the headphone jack.

 

      The LFO, or Low Frequency Oscillator, allows for amplitude and/or frequency distortions of the FM sounds.  Each channel elects the degree to which it will be distorted by the LFO, if at all.  This could be used, for example, in a guitar solo.

 

      Finally, the system has two software timers, which may be used as an alternative to the Z80 VBLANK interrupt.  Unfortunately, these timers do not cause interrupts -- they must be read by the software to determine if they have finished counting.

 

A LITTLE BIT ABOUT OPERATORS

 

      There are four dedicated operators assigned to every channel, with the following properties:

 

--  An operator has an input, a frequency and envelope with. which

    to modify the input, and an output.

--  The operators have two types, those whose outputs feed into

    another operator, and those that are summed to form the

    final wave form.  The latter are called 'slots'.

--  The slots may be independently enabled, though Sega's software

    always enables or disables them all simultaneously.

--  Operator 1 may feed back into itself, resulting in a more

    complex wave form.

 

 These operators may be arranged in eight different configurations, called "algorithms".  A diagram of the algorithms follows on the next page.

 

 


 

Page 3

 

     Algorithm 0 -- distortion guitar, "high hat chopper" (?) bass

     Algorithm 1 -- harp, PSG (programmable sound generator) sound

     Algorithm 2 -- bass, electric guitar, brass, piano, woods

     Algorithm 3 -- strings, folk guitar, chimes

     Algorithm 4 -- flute, bells, chorus, bass drum, snare drum, tom-tom

     Algorithm 5 -- brass, organ

     Algorithm 6 -- xylophone, tom-tom, organ, vibraphone

                 -- snare drum, base drum

     Algorithm 7 -- pipe organ


Page 4

 

REGISTER OVERVIEW

 

      The system is controlled by means of a large number of registers. General system registers are:

 

--  timer values and status, software use

--  LFO enable and frequency. to distort the FM channels

--  DAC enable and amplitude

--  output enables for each of the 6 FM channels

--  number of frequencies to be used in FM channels 3 and 6 Usually.

    an FM channel has only one overall frequency, but if so elected,

    FM channels 3 and 6 use four separate frequencies, one for each

    operator.

 

      The remainder of the registers apply to a single FM channel, or to an operator in that channel.  Registers that refer to the channel as a whole are:

 

--  frequency number (in the standard case) -- algorithm number

--  extent of self-feedback in operator 1

--  output type, to L, R, or both speakers.  This can only be

    heard if headphones are used.

--  the extent to which the channel is distorted by the LFO.

 

      Registers that refer to each operator make up the remainder.  The four operator's connections are determined by the algorithm used, but the envelope is always specified individually for each operator.  In the case of FM channels 3 and 6, the frequency may be specified individually for each operator.

 


 

Page 5

 

ENVELOPE SPECIFICATION

 

 

     The sound starts when the key is depressed, a process called 'key on'. The sound has an attack, a strong primary decay, followed by a slow secondary decay.  The sound continues this secondary decay until the key is released, a process called 'key off'.  The sound then begins a rapid final decay, representing for example a piano note after the key has been released and the damper has come down on the strings.

 

     The envelope is represented by the above amplitudes and angles, and a few supplementary registers. Used in the above diagram are:

 

TL  --  Total level, the highest amplitude of the wave form

AR  --  Attack rate, the angle of initial amplitude increase. This can

        be made very steep if desired.  The problem with slow attack

        rates is that if the notes are short, the release (called 'key

        off') occurs before the note has reached a reasonable level.

D1R --  The angle of initial amplitude decrease

T1L --. The amplitude at which the slower amplitude decrease starts

D2R --  The angle of secondary amplitude decrease.  This will continue

        indefinitely unless 'key off' occurs.

RR  --  The final angle of amplitude decrease, after 'key off'.

 


 

Page 5 1/2

 

            Additional registers are:

 

RS  --  Rate scaling.  The degree to which envelopes become shorter as

        frequencies become higher. For example, high notes on a piano

        fade much more quickly than low notes.

 

AM  --  Amplitude Modulation enable, whether or not this operator will

        allow itself to be modified by the LFO.  Changing the amplitude

        of the slots (those colored gray in the diagram on page 3)

        changes the loudness of the note;  changing the amplitude of the

        other operators changes its flavor.

 

SSG-EG -- a proprietary register whose usage is unknown. It should

          be set to O.

 

 


 

Page 6

 

      The FM-2612 may be accessed from either the 68000 or the Z80.  In both cases, however, the bus is only 8 bits wide.

 

      The FM-2612 is accessed through memory locations 4000H - 4003H in the Z80 case, or A04000H - A04003H in the 68000 case.  These will be referred to as 4000 to 4003.

 

      The internal registers of the FM-2612 are divided as follows;

 

 


 

Page 7

 

       To units to Part I, write the 8 bit address to 4000 and the data to 4001.  To write to PART II, write the 8-bit address to 4002 and the data to 4003.

 

      CAUTION:  Before writing, read from any address to determine if the YM-2612 I/O is still busy from the last write.  Delay until bit 7 returns to 0.

 

      CAUTION:  in the case of registers that are "ganged together" to form a longer number - for example the 10-bit Timer A value or the 14-bit frequencies, write the high register first.

 

      READ DATA:  Reading from any of the four locations.

 

                      BUSY - 1 if busy, 0 if ready for new data

 

                      OVERFLOW - 1 if the timer has counted up

                                 and overflowed.  See register 27H.

 


 

 

Page 8

 

 

 

 

 


 

Page 9

 

PART I MEMORY MAP (Cont.)

 

Each of the above has three entries.  All follow the pattern:

 

 

with the exception that A8H and ACH follow the pattern:

 

"PART II" is a duplication of 30H - B4H, where channels 1-3 are

replaced by 4-6.

 


 

Page 10

 

The Registers:

LFO EN - 1 is enabled, 0 is disabled.

 

 

LFO FREQ.

The LFO (Low frequency Oscillator) is used to distort the FM sounds amplitude and phase.  It is triple enabled, as there is:

            A)  A global enable in Reg. 22H

            B)  A sensitivity enable on a channel by channel basis,

                in Regs. 60H - 6EH.

 

If the LFP is desired, enable it by register 22H.  Next, select which channels will be affected by the LFO, to what degree, and whether their

amplitude or phase ___ ___ ___.

 


 

Page 11

 

affected, by setting registers B4 - B6H. Finally. if a channel's amplitude is affected, make sure that it is only the "slots" that are affected by setting registers 60H - 6EH.

 

 

 

Registers 24H and 25H are ganged together to form 10-bit TIMER A, with register 25H containing the least significant bits.  They should be set in the order 24H, 25H.  The timer lasts:

 

             18 * (1024 - TIMER A) microseconds

 

Timer A - all 1's  ->  18 µs = 0.018 ms

 

Timer A - all 0's  ->  18,400 µs = 18.4 ms


Page 12

8 Bit Timer B lasts

 

288 * (256 - TIMER B ) microseconds

 

TIMER B = all 1's  ->  0.288 ms

TIMER B = all 0's  -> 73.44 ms

 

 

 

Register 27H controls the software timers and the Channel 3 (and 6) mode, two entirely separate items.

 

CH 3 MODE

 D7  D6

 

NORMAL

 0   0

Channel 3 is the same as the others

SPECIAL

 0   1

Channel 3 has 4 separate frequencies

ILLEGAL

 1   X

--------

 


Page 13

 

A normal channel's operators use offsets of integral multiples of a single frequency.  In special mode, each operator has an entirely separate frequency.  Channel 3 operator 1's frequency is in registers A2 and A6.  Operators 2 to 4 are in Regs. A8 and AC, A9 and AD, and AA and AE respectively.

 

No one at Sega has used the timer feature,  but the Japanese manual says;

 

LOAD - 1 starts the timer, 0 stops it.

 

ENABLE - 1 causes timer overflow to set the read register flag.  0 means the timer keeps cycling without setting the flag.

 

RESET - Writing a 1 clears the read register flag, writing a 0 has no effect.


Page 14

 

 

This register is used for "Key on" and "Key off".  "Key on" is the depression of the synthesizer key.  "Key off" is its release.  The sequence of operations is;   set parameters,  Key on,  wait,  key off.  When key off occurs, the FM channel stops its slow decline and starts the rapid decline specified by "RR", the release rate.

 

In a single write to register 28H, one sets the status of all operators for a single channel.  Sega always sets them to the same value, on (1) or off (0).  Using a special channel 3,  I believe it is possible to have each operator be a separate note,  so there is possible justification for turning then on and off separately.

 

 


Page 15

 

 

 

 

Register 2AH contains 8 bit DAC data.

 

 

If the DAC enable is 1, the DAC data is output as a replacement for channel 6.  The only Channel 6 register that affects the DAC is the stereo output portion of reg. B4H.


Page 16

 

Registers 30H - 90H are all single - operator registers.  Please see page 8 for how the twelve channel - operator combinations are arranged.

 

 

Both DT1 (Detune) and MUL (Multiple) relate the operator's frequency to the overall frequency.

 

MUL ranges from 0 to 15, and multiples the overall frequency, with the exception that 0 results in multiplication by 1/2.  That is, MUL=0 to 15 gives   *1/2, *1, *2, ... *15.

 

DT1 gives small variations from the overall frequency * MUL.  The MSB of DT1 is a primitive sign bit, and the two LSB's are magnitude bits.  See the next page for a diagram.
Page 17

 

 D6  D5  D4

Multiplicative

Effect

 

 0   0   0

No Change

 

 0   0   1

X ( 1 + 1*E )

 

 0   1   0

X ( 1 + 2*E )

 

 0   1   1

X ( 1 + 3*E )

  Where E is a small number.

 1   0   0

No Change

 

 1   0   1

X ( 1 + 1*E )

 

 1   1   0

X ( 1 + 2*E )

 

 1   1   1

X ( 1 + 3*E )

 

 

 

TL (total level) represents the envelopes highest amplitude, with 0 being the largest and 127 the smallest.  A change of one unit is about 0.75 dB.

 

To make a note softer, only change the TL of the slots (the output operators).  Changing the other operators will affect the flavor of the note.


 

Register 50H contains RS (rate scaling) and AR (attack rate).  AR is the steepness of the initial amplitude rise, shown on page 4.

 

RS affects AR, D1R, D2R and RR in the same way.  RS is the degree to which the envelope becomes narrower as the frequency becomes higher.

 

The frequency's top five bits (3 octave bits and 2 note bits) are called KC (Key code) in the following rate formulas:

 

RS=0 -> Final Rate = 2 * Rate + (KC/8)

RS=1 -> Final Rate = 2 * Rate + (KC/4)

RS=2 -> Final Rate = 2 * Rate + (KC/2)

RS=3 -> Final Rate = 2 * Rate + (KC/1)

                                       KC/N is always rounded down.

 

As rate ranges from 0-31, this means that the RS influence ranges from small (at 0-3) to very large  (at 0-31)

 


Page 19

 

D1R (First Decay Rate) is the initial steep amplitude decay rate (see page 4).  It is, like all rates, 0-31 in value and affected by RS.

 

AM is the amplitude modulation enable, whether of not this operator will be subject to amplitude modulation by the LFO.  This bit is not relevant unless both the LFO is enabled and register B4's AMS (Amplitude modulation sensitivity) is non-zero.

 

 

D2R (secondary decay rate) is the long tail off of the sound that continues as long as the key is depressed.


Page 20

 

 

D1L is the secondary amplitude reached after the first period of rapid decay.  It should be multiplied by 8 if one wishes to compare it to TL.  Again as TL, the higher the number, the more attenuated the sound.

 

RR is the release rate, the final sharp decrease in volume after the key is released.  All rates are 5 bit numbers, but there are only four bits available in the register.  Thus, for comparison and calculation purposes, these four bits are the MSBs and the LSB is always 1.  In other words, double it and add one.

 

 

This register is proprietary and should be set to zero.


The final registers relate mostly to a single channel.  Each register is tripled;  please see the diagram on page 9.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Channel 1's frequency is in A0 and A4H.

Channel 2's frequency is in A1 and A5H.

Channel 3's frequency is in normal mode

(Please see page 12)  is in A2 and A6H.

 

If Channel 3 is in special mode:

 

Operator 1's frequency is in A7 and A6H

Operator 2's frequency is in A8 and ACH

Operator 3's frequency is in A9 and ADH

Operator 4's frequency is in AA and AEH


Page 22

The frequency is a 14-bit number that should be set high byte, low byte (e.g. A4H then A0H).  The highest 3 bits called the "block", give the octave.  The next 10 bits give position in the octave, and a possible 12 - tone sequence is;

 

Low     617

        653

        692

        733

        777

        823          All numbers in base 10

        872

        924

        979

       1037

       1099

High   1164

 

This sequence should be used inside each octave.


Page 23

 

 

 

FEEDBACK is the degree to which operator 1 feeds back into itself.  In the voice library, self feedback is represented as this:

 

 

The ALGORITHM is the type of inter-operator connection used.  Please see the list of the eight operators on page 3.

 

 

Register B4H contains stereo output control and LFO sensitivity control.

 

L  - Left Output,  1 is on,  0 is off.

R  - Right Output, 1 is on,  0 is off.

 

NOTE:  The stereo may only be heard by headphones.

 


Page 24

AMS (Amplitude modulation sensitivity) and FMS (Frequency modulation sensitivity) are the degree to which the channel is affected by the LFO.  If the LF0 is disabled. this register need not be set.  Additionally, amplitude modulation is also enabled on an operator - by operator level.

 

AMS

0

1

2

3

dB

0

1.4

5.9

11.8

 

FMS

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

% of

0

+/- 3.4

+/- 6.7

+/-10

+/- 14

+/- 20

+/- 40

+/- 80

a halftone

 

 


Page 25

 

 

TEST PROGRAM

 

Here's a tested power-on initialization and sample note in the "Grand Piano" voice (Page 27)

 

 


Page 26

Register

Value

Comments

50H

5FH

RS/AR

54H

99H

RS/AR

58H

5FH

RS/AR

5CH

94H

RS/AR

60H

5

AM/D1R

64H

5

AM/D1R

68H

5

AM/D1R

6CH

7

AM/D1R

70H

2

D2R

74H

2

D2R

78H

2

D2R

7CH

2

D2R

80H

11H

D1L/RR

84H

11H

D1L/RR

88H

11H

D1L/RR

8CH

A6H

D1L/RR

90H

0

Proprietary

94H

0

Proprietary

98H

0

Proprietary

9CH

0

Proprietary

B0H

32H

FEEDBACK/ALGORITHM

B4H

C0H

Both Speakers on

28H

00H

Key off

A4H

22H

Set Frequency

A0H

69H

Set Frequency

28H

FOH

Key on

<Wait>

 

 

28H

00H

Key off

 

Notes:

  #1  Write address then data.

  #2  Loop until read register D7 becomes 0

  #3  Follow MSB/LSB sequence.


 

 

PROGRAMMABLE SOUND GENERATOR (PSG)

 

 The PSG contains four sound channels, consisting of three tone generators and a noise generator. Each of the four channels has an independent volume control (attenuator).  The PSG is controlled through output port $7F.

 

TONE GENERATOR FREQUENCY

 

 

The frequency (pitch) of a tone generator is set by a 10-bit value.  This value is counted down until it reaches zero, at which time the tone output toggles and the 10-bit value is reloaded into the counter.  Thus, higher

10-bit numbers produce lower frequencies.

 

To load a new frequency value into one of the tone generators,

you write a pair of bytes to I/O-location $7F according to the

following format:

 

 First Byte : 1 R2 R1 RO d3 d2 d1 dO

 Second Byte: 0 0  d9 d8 d7 d6 d5 d4

 

 The R2:R1:RO field selects the tone channel as follows:

 

   R2   R1   R0   Tone Chan.

    0    0    0     #1

    0    1    0     #2

    1    0    0     #3

 

 

 10-bit data is: (MSB) d9 d8 d7 d6 d5 d4 d3 d2 d1 dO (LSB)

 .

 

NOISE GENERATOR CONTROL

 

 

The noise generator uses three control bits to select the

"character" of the noise sound.  A bit called "FB" (Feedback)

produces periodic noise or "white" noise:

 

 

          FB      Noise Type

 

          0       Periodic (like low-frequency tone)

          1       White (hiss)

 

The frequency of the noise is selected by two bits NF1:NF0

according to the following

 


 

    NF1   NF0    Noise Generator Clock Source

 

     0     0     Clock/2  [Higher pitch, "less coarse"]

     0     1     Clock/4

     1     0     Clock/8  [Lower pitch, "more coarse"]

     1     1     Tone Generator #3

 

NOTE:  "Clock" is fixed in frequency. It is a crystal controlled

oscillator signal connected to the PSG.

 

When NF1:NFO is 11, Tone Generator #3 supplies the noise clock source. This allows the noise to be "swept" in frequency.  This effect might be used for a jet engine runup, for example.

 

To load these noise generator control bits, write the following byte to I/O port $7F:

 

 

 

ATTENUATORS

 

Four attenuators adjust the volume of the three tone generators and the noise channel.  Four bits A3:A2:A1:AO control the attenuation as follows:

 

    A3   A2   A1   AO   Attenuation                             

 

    0    0    0    0     0 db (maximum volume)

    0    0    0    1     2 db NOTE: a higher attenuation results

    0    0    1    0     4 db in a quieter sound.

    0    0    1    1     6 db

    0    1    0    0     8 db

    0    1    0    1    10 db

    0    1    1    0    12 db

    0    1    1    1    14 db

    1    0    0    0    16 db

    1    0    0    1    18 db

    1    0    1    0    20 db

    1    0    1    1    22 db

    1    1    0    0    24 db

    1    1    0    1    26 db

    1    1    1    0    28 db

    1    1    1    1    -Off-